Prime Ministers of India and their Contribution

Prime Ministers of India and their Contribution

On this 48th death Anniversary of India’s First Prime Minister, Pandith Jawaharlal Nehru, I wish to place this article at the hands all those interested in history of Independent India Governance. While thanking all the concerned in the Google and Wikipedia for providing ever dependable information, this write up is based on what are available in their portal in addition to certain information gathered from the web site of the PMO. The information gathered is posted as it is except for minor changes and are arranged in a format easy to read person wise continuously. However, comments section is my write up. 

I also wish to recognise the friendly advice given by my friends in various WhatsApp group as to what they expect in this blog-post. I have tried my best to ensure that their wish are fulfilled.

A humble request to all, if there are any factual mistakes or omissions or repetitions, then please feel free to inform the same in the comments section. The same will be incorporated after verification and if found true before this write up is taken to the next level.

01.  Sri. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru - The 1st Prime Minister

Brief Introduction

Nehru was born to a family of Kashmiri Bramhan Motilal Nehru, a renowned lawyer and leader of the Indian independence movement, who became one of  Mahatma Gandhi’s prominent associates. Jawaharlal was the eldest of four children, two of whom were girls. A sister, Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit, later became the first woman president of the United Nations General Assembly. Until the age of 16, Nehru was educated at home and in 1905 he went to Harrow, a leading English school, where he stayed for two years. From Harrow he went to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he spent three years earning an honours degree in natural science. On leaving Cambridge he qualified as a barrister after two years at the Inner Temple, London. Four years after his return to India, in March 1916, Nehru married Kamala Kaul, who also came from a Kashmiri family that had settled in Delhi. Their only child, Indira Priyadarshini, was born in 1917. His birthday 14th Nov.1889 is celebrated in India as Children’s day as he was very fond of children.  Chacha Nehru, as he is affectionately called by the children died of heart attack on 27th May, 1964.

Period of Occupation : 15th August 1947 - 27th May 1964

Total Months in Power : 16 Years 286 Days

How he became PM & How he vacated it.

After being elected by the Indian National Congress, Nehru took oath on 15 August 1947 as the First Prime Minister.  Nehru went on to serve as prime minister for 17 consecutive years, winning four general elections in the process.

Tenure of Nehru ended on 27th May 1964, upon his death.

Major events during the period

1. In the early years of Indian nationhood, the world identified India with Nehru.

2. After independence,  it was felt that more of an impetus has to be given to the savings movement and the National Savings Organisation NSO (now NSI) was created in 1948. Like wise by an Act of Parliament in 1963, Unit Trust of India was established but it has been closed in 2003 and wrapped up in 2008.

3. India became a Republic w.e.f.26.01.1950 pursuant to resolution of the Constituent Assembly.

4. Creating the Planning commission of India, Nehru drew up the first Five-Year Plan in 1951, which charted the government's investments in industries and agriculture. 

5. Increasing business and income taxes, Nehru envisaged a mixed economy in which the government would manage strategic industries such as mining, electricity and heavy industries, serving public interest and a check to private enterprise. 

6. Nehru pursued land redistribution and launched programmes to build irrigation canals, dams and spread the use of fertilizers to increase agricultural production. 

7. He also pioneered a series of community development programs aimed at spreading diverse cottage industries and increasing efficiency into rural India. While encouraging the construction of large dams, which Nehru called the 'new temples of India', irrigation works and the generation of hydroelectricity. Nehru also launched India's programme to harness nuclear energy.

8. Nehru's industrial policies, summarised in the Industrial Policy Resolution of 1956, encouraged the growth of diverse manufacturing and heavy industries, yet state planning, controls and regulations began to impair productivity, quality and profitability. Although the Indian economy enjoyed a steady rate of growth, chronic unemployment amidst widespread poverty continued to plague the population.

9. His government oversaw the establishment of many institutions of higher learning, including the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, the Indian Institutes of Technology and the Indian Institutes of Management. 

10. Nehru also outlined a commitment in his five-year plans to guarantee free and compulsory primary education to all of India's children. For this purpose, Nehru oversaw the creation of mass village enrolment programmes and the construction of thousands of schools. Nehru also launched initiatives such as the provision of free milk and meals to children in order to fight malnutrition. Adult education centres, vocational and technical schools were also organised for adults, especially in the rural areas.

11. One of the achievements of which Nehru was particularly proud was the reform of the ancient Hindu civil code that finally enabled Hindu widows to enjoy equality with men in matters of inheritance and property. Under Nehru, the Indian Parliament enacted many changes to Hindu law to criminalize caste discrimination and increase the legal rights and social freedoms of women

12. A system of reservations in government services and educational institutions was created to eradicate the social inequalities and disadvantages faced by peoples of the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.

13.  Nehru also championed secularism and religious harmony, increasing the representation of minorities in government.

14. Nehru is credited for establishing a widespread system of affirmative action to provide equal opportunities and rights for India's ethnic groups, minorities, women, scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Nehru's passion for egalitarianism meant that he put the state to work to try and end widespread practices of discrimination against women and depressed classes, though with limited success in his lifetime.

15. While differences of culture and, especially, language threatened the unity of the new nation, Nehru established programs such as the National Book Trust and the National Literary Academy which promoted the translation of regional literatures between languages and also organized the transfer of materials between regions. In pursuit of a single, unified India, Nehru warned, "Integrate or perish."

16. On the international scene, Nehru was a champion of pacifism and a strong supporter of the United Nations

17. During its first years of freedom from British rule, both the United States and the Union Soviet Socialist Republic have competed to make India an ally throughout the cold war.

18. Although having promised in 1948 to hold a plebiscite in Kashmir under the auspices of the U.N. but as Pakistan failed to pull back troops as per UN resolution and as Nehru grew increasingly wary of the U.N., he declined to hold a plebiscite in 1953. He ordered the arrest of the Kashmiri politician Sheikh Abdullah, whom he had previously supported but now suspected of harbouring separatist ambitions; Bakshi Ghulam Mohammad replaced him.

19. He pioneered the policy of non-alignment and co-founded the Non-Aligned Movement of nations professing neutrality between the rival blocs of nations led by the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. Recognising the People's Republic of China soon after its founding, Nehru argued for its inclusion in the United Nations and refused to brand the Chinese as the aggressors in their conflict with Korea. He sought to establish warm and friendly relations with it despite the invasion of Tibet in 1950, and hoped to act as an intermediary to bridge the gulf and tensions between the communist states and the Western bloc. This policy of pacifism and appeasement with respect to China soon came unraveled when China annexed Aksai Chin, the region of Kashmir adjoining Tibet in 1962 that led to the Sino-Indian war.

20. Nehru was hailed by many for working to defuse global tensions and the threat of nuclear weapons. He commissioned the first study of the human effects of nuclear explosions, and campaigned ceaselessly for the abolition of what he called "these frightful engines of destruction." He also had pragmatic reasons for promoting de-nuclearisation, fearing that a nuclear arms race would lead to over-militarisation that would be unaffordable for developing countries such as his own.

21. In 1956 he had criticised the joint invasion of the Suez Canal by the British, French and Israelis. Suspicion and distrust cooled relations between India and the U.S., which suspected Nehru of tacitly supporting the Soviet Union. Accepting the arbitration of the UK and World Bank, Nehru signed the Indus Water Treaty in 1960 with Pakistani ruler Ayub Khan to resolve long-standing disputes about sharing the resources of the major rivers of the Punjab region.

22. The election of his daughter Indira as Congress President in 1959 aroused criticism for alleged nepotism, although Nehru disapproved of her election, partly because he considered it smacked of "dynastism"; he said, indeed it was "wholly undemocratic and an undesirable thing", and refused her a position in his cabinet. Indira herself was at loggerheads with her father over policy Nehru began to be frequently embarrassed by her ruthlessness and disregard for parliamentary tradition, and was "hurt" by what he saw as an assertiveness with no purpose other than to stake out an identity independent of her father.

23. Although the Pancha Sila (Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence) was the basis of the 1954 Sino-Indian treaty over Tibet, in later years, Nehru's foreign policy suffered through increasing Chinese antagonism over border disputes and Nehru's decision to grant asylum to the Dalai Lama. 

24. After years of failed negotiations, Nehru authorized the Indian Army to annex Goa from Portugal in 1961. 

25. In a matter of months, the border disputes with China turned into open conflict. Nehru assumed that as former victims of imperialism (India being a colony itself) they shared a sense of solidarity, as expressed in the phrase "Hindi-Chini bhai bhai" (Indians and Chinese are brothers). He was dedicated to the ideals of brotherhood and solidarity among developing nations. Nehru, naively, did not believe that one fellow Socialist country would attack another; and in any event, he felt secure behind the impregnable wall of ice that is the Himalayas. Both proved to be severe miscalculations of China's intentions and military capabilities. Following reports of his intention to confront Chinese occupation of the disputed areas—summarised in a memorable statement that he had asked the Army to "throw them (Chinese) out" - China launched a pre-emptive attack. In a matter of days, a Chinese invasion of north-eastern India exposed the weaknesses of India's military as Chinese forces came as far as Assam. Widely criticised for his government's insufficient attention to defence, Nehru was forced to sack the defence minister Krishna Menon and seek U.S. military aid. Nehru's health began declining steadily, and some historians attribute this dramatic decline to his surprise and chagrin over the invasion of India by the Chinese, which he perceived as a betrayal of trust. 

26. As India's first Prime minister and external affairs minister, Jawaharlal Nehru played a major role in shaping modern India's government and political culture along with sound foreign policy. He is praised for creating a system providing universal primary education, reaching children in the farthest corners of rural India. Nehru's education policy is also credited for the development of world-class educational institutions such as the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Indian Institutes of Technology, and the Indian Institutes of Management.

27. Atomic Energy Commission of India and the National Défense Academy are the brain child of Mr.Nehru.

28. The First Three-Five Year Plans are important because their aim was to build a strong Industrial base in India. This first phase of Industrial development in India laid the foundation for strong Industrial Phase. Though HAL was established by a private individual in association with the then Govt of Mysore, it was taken over by the Central Govt. in January 1951 placed under the administrative control of Ministry of Defence, Government of India.

29. The passing of State Reorganisation Act, 1956 and it's implementation.

To sum up, the importance of Nehru in the perspective of Indian history is that he imported and imparted modern values and ways of thinking, which he adapted to Indian conditions. Whatever good we see in the Country will definitely have a link with Pandith Nehru. For ex. on Sep., 15, 1959, Doordarshan was started in the Country but electronic media gained popularlty only in 1992, that is after a lapse of 33 years. Apart from his stress on secularism and on the basic unity of India, despite its ethnic and religious diversities, Nehru was deeply concerned with carrying India forward into the modern age of scientific discovery and technological development. In addition, he aroused in his people an awareness of the necessity of social concern with the poor and the outcast and of respect for democratic values.

My Comments.

1. There can be no second opinion that Pandith Nehru deserves a big salute for showing to the world as to existence of a country named India. Unfortunately his successors in government have not properly looked after the plants planted by him.

2. Though our Country becoming a Democratic, Secular, Socialistic, Republic thanks to fantastic job done by the Constituent Assembly, Nehru too deserve full credit for ensuring faithful implementation of the resolution of the Constituent Assembly.

3. I again salute Nehru for bringing major changes to Hindu law there by protecting the rights of Hindu Woman. However, India being a secular country, right of women in other religion also could have been protected. Govt should either meddle with  custom prevailing in all religion or keep away from the customs of all religion.

4. Nehru also deserves credit for starting centers for higher education. As can be seen from the list below, what he started has been taken to greater heights by some of his successors. Again unfortunately, successor government slept over for several decades before taking the good works of Pandith Nehru to its logical end:

Education Institutions Tally as of 27th May 2021
Sl No Institute Total  Launched By
1 AIIMS 24 Nehru(1); ABV (6); MMS(1); NM (16)
2 IIT 21 Nehru(5); ABV (1); PVN (1); MMS(8); NM (6)
3 IIM 20 Nehru(2); IG (1); RG(1); DG(2); MMS(7); NM (7)


5. His innovative ideas of small savings by extending tax concessions was worth following by others but was unfortunately wrapped up in 2008.

6. Whenever we see a Heavy Industries in the country, we should remember Mr.Nehru. 

7. As regards war and foreign policies, in spite of his best efforts certain unforeseen

results have taken place and as such I say “No Comments” especially since war broke out with a powerful Country within fifteen years of India gaining Independence.

02 & 04. Sri. Gulzari Lal Nanda - The 2nd & 4th (Acting) Prime Minister

Brief Introduction

Nanda was born on 4 July 1898 in Sialkot in the Punjab Province of India into a Punjabi Hindu family Nanda received his education in LahoreAmritsarAgra, and Allahabad

Nanda worked as a research scholar on labour problems at Allahabad University (1920–1921), and became a Professor of Economics at National College in Bombay in 1921. The same year, he joined the Indian Non-Cooperation Movement against the British Raj. In 1922, he became secretary of the Ahmedabad Textile Labour Association where he worked until 1946. During this period, he was imprisoned for Satyagraha in 1932, and again from 1942 to 1944. 

He married Lakshmi, with whom he had two sons and a daughter. 

In the British Raj, Nanda was elected to the Bombay Legislative Assembly in 1937, and served as parliamentary secretary (for Labor and Excise) to the Government of Bombay from 1937 to 1939. As Labour Minister of the Bombay Government during 1946–1950, he successfully piloted the Labor Disputes Bill in the state assembly. He served as a Trustee of the Kasturba Memorial Trust. He served as secretary of the Hindustan Mazdoor Sevak Sangh and Chairman of the Bombay Housing Board. He was a member of the National Planning Committee. He was largely instrumental in organising the Indian National Trade Union Congress, and later became its president.

In 1947, Nanda went to GenevaSwitzerland as a government delegate to the International Labor Conference. 

In March 1950, Nanda joined the Indian Planning Commission as its vice-chairman. In September 1951, he was appointed Planning Minister in the Indian Government. He was also given charge of the portfolios of Irrigation and Power. He was elected to the Lok Sabha from Bombay in the general elections of 1952, and was reappointed Minister for Planning, Irrigation, and Power. 

Nanda was again elected to the Lok Sabha in the 1957 elections, and was appointed Union Minister for Labour, Employment and Planning, and later, as Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission.

Nanda was re-elected to the Lok Sabha in the 1962 elections from the Sabarkantha constituency in Gujarat. He initiated the Congress Forum for Socialist Action in 1962. He was Union Minister for Labour and Employment in 1962–1963, and Minister for Home Affairs in 1963–1966.

Nanda was re-elected to the Lok Sabha in the 1967 and 1971 elections from the Kaithal (Lok Sabha Constituency) in Haryana.

Period of Occupation : 27th May 1964 to 9th June 1964 &  11th January 1966 to 24th January 1966

Total Months in Power : 26 Days

How he became PM & How he vacated it.

Being non controversial senior person in the party, he was appointed twice as acting Prime Minister.

Being acting PM, the term ended with regular appointment.

Major events during the period

Virtually nil except enabling smooth transfer of the power on both occasions to the elected leader of the ruling party.

My Comments

Nanda was in power for just 26 days that too spread over two sessions and was only holding the post of Acting PM. Nothing to comment. It is not clear as to why his name was not considered for regular appointment though he was active in party and also had experience in various ministry especially those of Labour and Planning.

03.  Sri. Lal Bahaddur Shastri - The 2nd Prime Minister

Brief Introduction

Shastri was born to Sharada Prasad Srivastava and Ramdulari Devi in Mughalsarai on 2nd  October 1904, sharing his birthday with Mahatma Gandhi. He studied in East Central Railway Inter college and Harish Chandra High School, which he left to join the non-cooperation movement. He worked for the betterment of the Harijans at Muzaffarpur and dropped his caste-derived surname of "Srivastava". Shastri's thoughts were influenced by reading about Swami Vivekananda, Gandhi and Annie Besant. Deeply impressed and influenced by Gandhi, he joined the Indian independence movement in the 1920s. He served as the president of Servants of the People Society , founded by Lala Lajpat Rai and held prominent positions in Indian National Congress. Following independence in 1947, he joined the Indian government and became first as Railways Minister (1951–56), and then in numerous other prominent positions, including the Home Minister. He died on 11th Jan., 1966 while holding the post of Prime Minister. There is still a dispute as to whether it is a case of natural death or death due to pisoning since Mrs.Shasrty contended that the body had turned blue. However, no postmortem was done so as to maintain international friendly relationship.

Period of Occupation : 9th June 1964 11th January 1966

Total Months in Power : 1 Year 216 Days

How he became PM & How he vacated

Congress party elected LBShastry, a former home minister, as its Parliamentary leader upon the death of Pandith Jawaharlal Nehru

Shashtri’s term came to an ubrupt end due to his death  of a reported heart attack in Tashkent, USSR, after signing the Tashkent Declaration.

Major events during the period

Shastri worked by his natural characteristics to obtain compromises between opposing viewpoints, but in his short tenure he was ineffectual in dealing with the economic crisis and food shortage in the nation. However, he commanded a great deal of respect in the Indian populace, and he used it to gain advantage in pushing the Green Revolution in India; which directly led to India becoming a food-surplus nation, although he did not live to see it. During the 22-day war with Pakistan, Lal Bahadur Shastri created the slogan of "Jai Jawan Jai Kisan" ("Hail the soldier, Hail the farmer"), underlining the need to boost India's food production. Apart from emphasizing the Green Revolution, he was instrumental in promoting the White Revolution. Greatly impressed by a visit to the Kaira district in October 1964, he urged the rest of the country to learn from the successful experiment at Anand. The National Dairy Development Board was formed in 1965 during his tenure as Prime Minister.

My Comments

It is misfortune of the country that a promising star had an abrupt end and during this short period he ushered white revolution.

05 & 08.  Smt. Indira Gandhi - The 3rd Prime Minister

Brief Introduction

Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi  Nehru was born on 19th  November 1917 as the only daughter of the first prime minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru & Kamala Nehru. She was married to Feroz Gandhi and had two sons Rajiv Gandhi and Sanjay Gandhi.

During Nehru's time as Prime Minister of India from 1947 to 1964, Gandhi was considered a key assistant and accompanied him on his numerous foreign trips. She was elected President of the Indian National Congress in 1959. Upon her father's death in 1964, she was appointed as a member of the Rajya Sabha and became a member of Lal Bahadur Shastri's cabinet as Minister of Information and Broadcasting. After the death of Lal Bahaddur Shastry, in the Congress Party's parliamentary leadership election held in early 1966, she defeated her rival Morarji Desai to become leader, and thus succeeded Shastri as Prime Minister of India. 

Unfortunately, on 31st Oct., 1984 her own body guards assassinated her.

Period of Occupation : 24th January 1966 to 24th March 1977 & 14th January 1980 to 31st October 1984

Total Months in Power : 15 Years 350 Days

How she became PM & How she vacated it

After Shastri, Mrs.Indira Gandhi—Nehru's daughter—was elected by the INC as the country's first woman prime minister.

On 31st  October 1984, Mrs. Gandhi was shot dead by Satwant Singh and Beant Singh—two of her bodyguards—in the garden of her residence at 1, Safdarjung Road, New Delhi

Major events during the period

I. Facilitating the Green Revolution

She garnered widespread public support for agricultural improvements that led to India’s self-sufficiency in food grain production and in the process continued the Green Revolution started during the regime of Mr.Shastry. A popular slogan roti kapada aur makan became a thrust to push the Country for self reliance on all the three essentials of living.

II. Nationalising 14 Private-Sector Banks

Ownership of 14 major private banks of that time were taken over to Government

III. Indo-Pakistan War of 1971 

Supported people of East Pakistan in their fight against West Pakistan that resulted in India directly entering into war with Pakistan and the same ended with Pak surrendering and the birth of Bangladesh

IV. The Shimla Agreement

After the 1971 Indo-Pakistan war, an agreement was signed between India and Pakistan at Shimla, Himachal Pradesh. The agreement paved the way for the diplomatic recognition of Bangladesh by Pakistan. Under the agreement, both the parties agreed to settle their differences through peaceful means and bilateral agreement. Kashmir, as a dispute was also considered as a bilateral issue that must be settled through the Shimla Agreement 1972, and thus India denied any intervention by third parties, even by that of the United Nations.

V. Ending Privy Purse given to Royalty since 1947

Privy Purse, a payment given to the royal families of erstwhile princely states as part of their agreement to integrate with India in 1947, and later merge with the states in 1949 was abolished thereby taking away all their rights.

VI. Operation Smiling Buddh

 Smilig Budda was the code name of India’s first nuclear bomb, which was tested on May 18th,  1974.

VII. Law amended to suit her self interest

In 1975, Indira was convicted of electoral corruption by the High Court of Allahabad and prohibited from running in another election for six years. Instead of resigning, she amended relevant provisions in Election Laws with retrospective effect to over turn the decision.

VIII. Twenty Point programme

1. Attack on rural poverty

2. Strategy for rained agriculture

3. Better use of irrigation water

4. Bigger harvest

5. Enforcement of land reforms

6. Special programme for rural labour

7. Clean drinking water

8. Health for all

9. Two child norm

10. Expansion of education

11. Justice for SC/ST

12. Equality for women

13. New opportunities for women

14. Housing for the people

15. Improvement of slums

16. New strategy for forestry

17.Protection of the environment

18.Concern for consumer

19. Energy for villagers

20.A responsive administration

While Mrs.Indira was the Prime Minister, States such as Karnataka where her party was in power enacted several enactments said to be in tune with 20 Point programme of the PM

(a). In 1974, the Karnataka Land Reforms Act was amended providing for grant of ownership of the land to the tenants thereby depriving ownership rights to landowners.

(b). In 1975, Karnataka Debt Relief act was introduced to wipe off small lending made to certain categories of persons.

(c). In 1976, Kar. Carriage (Aqn of vehicles) Act was introduced to compulsorily take over Contract carriages held by private persons and to transfer the same to the KSRTC thereby depriving the Owners of their right over permits and vehicles. (However, recently CC permits are again granted in Karnataka)

IX. Imposition of Emergency 

To snub the protests across the Country demanding her resignation, state of emergency was declared on June 25,1975 whereby citizens’ civil liberties were suspended, the press was acutely censored and the majority of her opposition was detained without trial. Some of her own partymen like Chandrashekar who expressed dissent on her style of functioning were also put behind the bars.

X. Operation Blue Star

A bold decision to flush out Sikh terrorists who were hiding in Golden Temple, Amritsar

XI.  Interference in judiciary

In 1977, three senior most judges of the Supreme Court were over looked in the matter of appointment of Chief Justice of India and the same resulted in top three over looked judges tendering their resignations. It was a calculated move to interfere with judiciary as is clear from her speech wherein she says “How does MrShah know as to what is happening in the political world. What are the forces at work which want to destroy a developing economy. Is a judge competent to decide that? Then why have democracy, why have elections..”

XII. First Indian to go into Space

Rakesh Sharma, a former Indian Air Force pilot, was the first Indian to fly into space aboard Soyaz T11, which was launched on 2nd April 1984, as part of the Interkosmos  programme.

XIII. Facilitating Foreign Policy

Under the Indira Gandhi regime, India’s foreign policy saw a landmark period where it established itself as a regional power in South Asia

XIII. Although Gandhi continued professing socialist beliefs, the Sixth Five-Year Plan was markedly different from the years of Garibi Hatao. Populist programs and policies were replaced by pragmatism. There was an emphasis on tightening public expenditures, greater efficiency of the state-owned enterprises (SOE), which Gandhi qualified as a "sad thing", and in stimulating the private sector through deregulation and liberation of the capital market. The government subsequently launched Operation Forward in 1982, the first cautious attempt at reform. The Sixth Plan went on to become the most successful of the Five-Year Plans yet; showing an average growth of 5.7% over 1980–85.

XIII.  Insurance sector nationalised

 Pvt insurance business was taken over to Govt with the establishment of General Insurance Corporation (However in 2002, Pvt insurance was once again permitted to be established)

XIVSplit in INC

In the year 1969, to push through her policies, Mrs. Gandhi successfully ensured vertical split in the Indian National Congress.

My Comments

If politics is ignored, then there can be full justification of the famous sayings “Indira is India-India is Indira”, “In India, there is only one man in the Country and that is an woman” because more than the fact of Smt.Indira Gandhi presenting lot of innovative plans for the welfare of the Country, she had the ability to push them through overlooking all obstacles including from judiciary. To put it straight, I must say that in a dictatorial manner, she had the ability to push through her agenda by ignoring the suggestions of any person because she was convinced that what she has planned is the best for the Country. To achieve her goals, she first split the Indian National Congress in 1969 by virtually discarding all the seniors in the party resulting in Congress being split as Congress (O) and Congress (I) with “O” and “I” respectively meaning Organisation and Indira but in later days it used to be jocularly referred to as “O for Zero’ and “I for India” because Smt.Gandhi was able to corner full support from the people in the general elections held and stalwarts in the Congress(O) suffered humiliating defeat across the Country. For ex. Mr.T.A.Pai, the person behind the Manipal Empire lost the election to a then political novice and Auto Union leader Mr.Oscar Fernadez. The Press like the Indian Express which refused to toe her line got into several problems. She did not spare even the judiciary questioning the capability of the judges even of Supreme Court in questioning her policies. This is what she says of Justice Shah of Supreme Court, “How does MrShah know as to what is happening in the political world. What are the forces at work which want to destroy a developing economy. Is a judge competent to decide that? Then why have democracy, why have elections..”. To silence political leaders, she took full control of the Country by imposing Emergency and thereby suspending several constitutional rights of citizens. In the process she ensured the arrest not only of almost all leaders of the opposition but even of leaders like Chandrashekar of her own party who dared to question her acts.

There is a famous saying that one can raise, raise, raise but it has to fall at the end. Here too same thing happened for Smt.Gandhi. In the general elections held after revoking emergency, Smt.Gandhi’s Congress was voted out of power.

Now coming back to her schemes, there can be no two opinions that all are people friendly but at the same time many were meant to deprive fruits of one for being given to another. There is a famous saying in kannada ಅಗಸನ ಕತ್ತೆ ದೊಂಬರಿಗೆ ದಾನ meaning that you are snatching a donkey from a person using it so as to gift it to  another person. With all respect I say that majority of her schemes especially those coming under 20 point programme exactly fits in to this. Under these schemes, government did not lose anything nor the production increased but it took away the property of one and gave it to another person/s as are the cases coming under Land Reforms Act,  Debt Relief Act, Imam Abolition Act. In all these cases hard earned property of one person is snatched from that person distributed to one or more persons. Likewise, schemes of nationalization forcibly took away the property of a group and declared the establishment as that of the Central Government. These acts gave her a good vote bank in as much as even if few property or money losers are upset with her, there are thousands who were benefited such as by getting ownership of land, getting their loan wiped off without payment or overnight being designated as a public servant  but production output remained the same. Another thing to be noticed is that the 20 point programme initiated by her has been restructured  by her own party in later years 1986 and 2006. When I make reference to Land Reforms Act, I will be failing if I do not refer to Bhoodan Movement of Acharya Vinobha Bhave started in 1951. While under the Land Reforms Act, land owners were deprived of their lands where as under the Bhoodan Movement, the Land Lords themselves DONATED a part of the land that too to land less persons. In fact one Raja of Ranka (Garhwa Jharkhand) donated a combined 1,02,001 acres to the Bhoodan initiative. Thus under the Bhoodan movement there was heart burns where as under Land Reforms Act there are lakhs of litigations between the land lord and the tenants. 

By so saying, I am not propagating that Mrs.Gandhi did nothing. She is one of the best Prime Minister Country has seen. However,  with her stubborn attitude and brute majority in the Parliament  she could have done much more without affecting the rights of any individuals.

At this stage one other aspect cannot be lost sight of. Though Smt.Gandhi lost the election conducted after lifting of the emergency, behind the scene activities by her ensured that she will come back to power. This is evident from the fact that by extending support to Charan Singh, she ensured the fall of the government in power and within a month thereafter withdrew support to Charan Singh.  In fact, this unhealthy practice of destabilizing the government has been successfully followed on three later occasions by her party resulting in the fall of the Governments headed by Sri.Chandrashekar, Sri.H.D.Deve Gowda and Sri.I.K.Gujral.

In conclusion, I feel that though there are several good and appreciative aspects in Smt.Indira Gandhi, unfortunately all her good activities gets shadowed by several of her unhealthy acts.

Though Smt.Gandhi was in power for 15 days short of 16 years, only one Institute for Higher Education was launched the same being an IIM.

06. Sri. Morarji Desai - The 4th Prime Minister

Brief Introduction

Morarji Ranchhodji Desai (29 February 1896 – 10 April 1995) was an Indian independence activist. During his long career in politics, he held many important posts in government such as Chief Minister of Bombay StateHome MinisterFinance Minister and 2nd Deputy Prime Minister of India.

Following the passing of Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri, Desai was a strong contender for the position of Prime Minister, only to be defeated by Indira Gandhi in 1966. He was appointed as Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance in Indira Gandhi's cabinet, until 1969. He resigned from the Congress during the split of 1969, and joined the INC (O). After the controversial emergency was lifted in 1977, the political parties of the opposition fought together against the Congress, under the umbrella of the Janata Party, and won the 1977 election. In 1986,  Pakistan presented him with its highest civilian award  the Nishan-e-Pakistan and in 1991, he was awarded the Bharat Ratna, making him the only Indian to receive the highest civilian awards of both countries.

Period of Occupation : 24th March 1977 to 28th July 1979

Total Months in Power : 2 Years 126 Days

How he became PM & How he vacated it

After the controversial emergency was lifted in 1977, the political parties of the opposition fought together against the Congress, under the umbrella of the Janata Party, and won the 1977 election. Desai was elected Prime Minister, and became the first non-Congress Prime Minister of India.

Janata Party coalition was full of personal and policy friction and thus failed to achieve much, owing to continuous in-wrangling and much controversy.[24] With no party in leadership of the coalition, rival groups vied to unseat Desai. Controversial trials of prominent Congress leaders, including Indira Gandhi over Emergency-era abuses worsened the fortunes of his administration. In 1979, Raj Narain and Charan Singh pulled out of the Janata Party, forcing Desai to resign from office and retire from politics. The chief reason for the collapse was the demand by the duo and other left-leaning members, like Madhu LimayeKrishan Kant, and George Fernandes that no member of the Janata party could simultaneously be a member of an alternative social or political organisation. This attack on "dual membership" was directed specifically at members of the Janata Party who had been members of the Jan Sangh, and continued to be members of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, the Jan Sangh's ideological parent.

Major events during the period

While his tenure as prime minister lasted just for about two years, he is credited with making serious efforts to improve relations with neighbours. It was during Desai’s time that both countries resumed playing cricket after a gap of 17 years. He is also said to have made serious peace overtures to the neighbouring country. 

Desai restored normal relations with China, for the first time since the 1962 war. He also communicated with the military ruler of Pakistan, General Zia-ul-Haq and established friendly relations. Despite his pacifist leanings, he refused to sign the non-nuclear proliferation treaty despite the threat of stopping supply of uranium for power plants by the USA Congress. 

Domestically, Desai played a crucial role in the Indian nuclear program after it was targeted by major nuclear powers after India conducted a surprise nuclear test in 1974. Desai kept India's nuclear reactors stating "they will never be used for atomic bombs, and I will see to it if I can help it". Internationally, he reaffirmed India's stand that it would not manufacture nuclear weapons and would refrain from conducting even peaceful nuclear explosions. In 1977, the Carter administration offered to sell heavy water and uranium to India for its nuclear reactors but required American on-site inspection of nuclear materials. Desai declined, seeing the American stance as contradictory, in light of its own nuclear arsenal. 

Morarji Desai had described the Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW), India's external intelligence agency, as the praetorian guard of Indira Gandhi and had promised to stop all activities of the R&AW after becoming prime minister. He closed down much of the agency, and reduced its budget and operations,]such as closing its Information Division.  

His government undid many amendments made to the constitution during emergency and made it more difficult for any future government to impose a national emergency..

My Comments

His governance is a mixture of modern as well as out dated. He refused to sign non-nuclear proliferation treat but assured not to produce nuclear weapons. However, took steps to cut the activities of RAW there by endangering national safety. One of the major act of the Govt is to ensure that there will be no more emergency like situation. In their anxiety to form first non-Congress government, the group of parties who formed the Janata Party never thought of extreme divergent views of the Left and the BJP. Due to absence of written working arrangement, the squiblings started within  two years leading to fall of the Government. Except initiating commission after commission, nothing concrete work has been done by the Government in the short duration of two years.

Not a single institute for higher education was started by Mr.Desai though he was in power for more than two years.

07.  Sri. Choudari Charan Singh - The 5th Prime Minister

Brief Introduction

Charan Singh was born on 23 December 1902 in a rural peasant Jat family of village Noorpur, District Hapur , Uttar Pradesh. Charan Singh entered politics as part of the Independence Movement motivated by Mahatma Gandhi. He was active from 1931 in the Ghaziabad District Arya Samaj as well as the Meerut District Indian National Congress for which he was jailed twice by the British. Before independence, as a member of Legislative Assembly of the United Provinces elected in 1937, he took a deep interest in the laws that were detrimental to the village economy and he slowly built his ideological and practical stand against the exploitation of tillers of the land by landlords.

Between 1952 and 1967, he was one of "three principal leaders in Congress state politics." He became particularly notable in Uttar Pradesh from the 1950s for drafting and ensuring the passage of what were then the most revolutionary land reform laws in any state in India under the tutelage of the then Chief Minister Pandit Govind Ballabh Pant; first as Parliamentary Secretary and then as Revenue Minister responsible for Land Reforms. He became visible on the national stage from 1959 when he publicly opposed the unquestioned leader and Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru's socialistic and collectivist land policies in the Nagpur Congress Session. Though his position in the faction-ridden UP Congress was weakened, this was a point when the middle peasant communities across castes in North India began looking up to him as their spokesperson and later as their unquestioned leader. Singh stood for tight government spending, enforced consequences for corrupt officers, and advocated a "firm hand in dealing with the demands of government employees for increased wages and dearness allowances." It is also worth noting that within the factional UP Congress, his ability to articulate his clear policies and values made him stand out from his colleagues. Following this period, Charan Singh defected from the Congress on 1 April 1967, joined the opposition party, and became the first non-Congress chief minister of UP. 

As leader of the Bharatiya Lok Dal, a major constituent of the Janata coalition, he was disappointed in his ambition to become Prime Minister in 1977 by Jayaprakash Narayan's choice of Morarji Desai..

Charan Singh, a 'champion of India's peasants expired on 29th May., 1987.

Period of Occupation : 28th July 1979 to 14th Jan 1980

Total Months in Power : 170 Days

How he became PM & How he vacated it

Through the calculative move of Raj Narain, the government of Mr.Morarji Desai fell and Charan Cingh was sworn in as the Prime Minister after the President was informed by the Congress Party that they are extending support to Mr.Singh.

However within a month,  Indira Gandhi's Congress Party withdrew support to the government. Charan Singh said he resigned because he was not ready to be blackmailed into withdrawing Indira Gandhi's emergency-related court cases.

Major events during the period

During his term as Prime Minister the Lok Sabha never met. Unfortunately, 1979–80 saw the strongest recession (−5.2%) in the history of modern India with inflation rampant at 18.2%.

My comments

Even though the dispute as to dual membership of BJP and RSS was very much in existence even when they joined hands to form the government in 1977, Sri.Charan Singh and Sri Raj Narain raised it when the government of Mr.Morarji Desai was about to complete two years in office. This resulted in BJP walking out from the group and the party in power lost the majority. Congress extended olive branch by extending outside support to Mr.Charan Singh to form the government only to withdraw it within a month. Thus, as on date Mr.Charan Singh is the only Prime Minister of the Country who has not faced the Parliament even after becoming the  Prime Minister of the Country. Nothing concrete work can be expected from a Prime Minister who held the office for such a short duration.

09. Sri.  Rajiv Gandhi - The 6th Prime Minister

Brief Introduction

Rajiv Ratna Gandhi born on 20 August 1944 as the eldest of the two sons of Feroz Gandhi and Indira Gandhi– 21 May 1991) He took office after the 1984 assassination of his mother, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, to become the youngest Indian Prime Minister at the age of 40.

Gandhi was from the politically powerful Nehru–Gandhi family, which had been associated with the Indian National Congress party. For much of his childhood, his maternal grandfather Jawaharlal Nehru was Prime Minister. Gandhi attended college in the United Kingdom. He returned to India in 1966 and became a professional pilot for the state-owned Indian Airlines. In 1968, he married Sonia Gandhi; the couple settled in Delhi to a domestic life with their children Rahul Gandhi and Priyanka Gandhi . For much of the 1970s, his mother Indira Gandhi was prime minister and his brother Sanjay Gandhi an MP; despite this, Rajiv Gandhi remained apolitical. After Sanjay's death in a plane crash in 1980, Gandhi reluctantly entered politics at the behest of Indira. The following year he won his brother's Parliamentary seat of Amethi and became a member of the Lok Sabha—the lower house of India's Parliament. As part of his political grooming, Rajiv was made general secretary of the Congress party and given significant responsibility in organising the 1982 Asian Games.

It is unfortunate that on the morning of 31 October 1984, Rajiv’s mother was assassinated by one of her bodyguards; later that day, Gandhi was appointed Prime Minister. However, subsequently, Indira’s son Rajiv Gandhi was also assassinated on 21st May, 1991 by a human bomb.

Period of Occupation : 31st Oct 1984 to 1st December 1989

Total Months in Power : 5 Years 32 Days

How he became PM & How he vacated it

After Indira, Rajiv—her eldest son and 40 years old at that time—was sworn in on the evening of 31st  October 1984, becoming the youngest person ever to hold the office of prime minister.

He resigned his post as prime minister in November 1989 after the Congress (I) Party was defeated in parliamentary elections.

Major events during the period

He was sworn in as a Prime Minister when thousands of Sikhs were massacred following the death of Indira Gandhi.

He led the Congress (I) Party to a landslide victory in elections to the Lok Sabha in December 1984.

His administration took vigorous measures to reform the government bureaucracy and liberalize the country’s economy. 

He introduced kissan Vikas Patra in 1988 but the same has subsequently been discontinued.

Gandhi’s attempts to discourage separatist movements in Punjab state and the Kashmir region backfired, however,  after his government became embroiled in several financial scandals, his leadership became increasingly ineffectual. He resigned his post as prime minister in November 1989 after the Congress (I) Party was defeated in parliamentary elections.

My Comments

An young man of 35 years working as pilot in commercial aircrafts was compelled to enter politics upon the tragic death of his only brother Sanjay and thereafter with little experience of just one year  in politics was pushed to accept the post of Prime Minister on the very day of his mother’s tragic death. However, after posting landslide victory  Rajiv was just getting ready to establish himself on the seat of power but the serious allegations of scandal in defense procurement popularly known as Bofors Scandal made his Defense Minister V.P.Singh to not only quit the post but also the party. Rajiv then had a tragic end to his life.

Though Mr.Gandhi was in power for full one term, just one institute for higher education was started the same being an IIM.

10.  Sri  V.P. Singh - The 7th Prime Minister

Brief Introduction

Vishwanath Pratap Singh  (25th  June 1931 – 27th  November 2008), popularly known as V. P. Singh  was educated at the Allahabad University and Pune University. In 1969, he joined the Indian National Congress party and was elected as a member of the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly. In 1971, he became a Member of Parliament in the Lok Sabha. He served as the Minister of Commerce from 1976 to 1977. In 1980, he became the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh and was known for the encounter of the gang of Phoolan Devi.

In the Rajiv Gandhi ministry, Singh was given various cabinet posts, including Minister of Finance and Minister of Defence. Singh was also the Leader of the Rajya Sabha from 1984 to 1987. During his tenure as Minister of Defence, the Bofors scandal came to light, and Singh resigned from the ministry. In 1988, he formed the Janata Dal party by merging various factions of the Janata Party. In the 1989 elections, the National Front, with the outside support of the BJP, formed the government and Singh became the 7th Prime Minister of India.

Period of Occupation : 2nd December 1989 to 10th November 1990

Total Months in Power : 343 Days

How he became PM and how he vacated

In the general election of 1989, the National Front—with outside support from the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and the Left Front—came to power.V. P. Singh was elected prime minister

Singh's tenure came to an end after he ordered the arrest of BJP member Lal Krishna Advani, as a result, BJP withdrew its outside support to the government, V. P. Singh lost the subsequent vote-of-no-confidence 151-356 and had to resign.

Major events during the period

Singh had earlier come under severe attack from many upper-caste Hindus of northern India for sponsoring implementation of the 1980 Mandal Commission report, which recommended that more jobs in all services be reserved for members of the lower castes and Dalit (formerly untouchable) outcaste communities. After he announced in August 1990 that the recommendations would be enforced, many young upper-caste Hindus immolated themselves in protests across northern India. V.P. Singh’s critics accused him of pandering to the lower castes for their votes, and many members of his own party deserted him on this searing issue, foremost among them Chandra Shekhar, who led a splinter group of JD dissidents out of Singh’s coalition. On November 7, 1990, V.P. Singh resigned after suffering a vote of no confidence by a stunning margin of 151-356.

My comments

Was in power for less than an year but the period is marked more for controversies than for progress. First he took steps for implementation of Mandal Commission report of 1980. In August 1990, V.P. Singh tabled the recommendations of the long-forgotten report in Parliament, paving the way for reservation for the OBC community in central government jobs.This prompted BJP, which had extended outside support to the ministry,  to take steps for construction of Mandir at Ayodhya leading to arrest of President of BJP and immediately BJP withdrew its support. Thus the Government of VPSingh known for nation wide agitation on Mandir vs. Mandal controversy. In fact Mr.Singh himself said in an interview “You can see that my every action before Mandal was great, excellent, and everything I did after amounted to the greatest disservice to India… Though my leg was broken, I hit the goal.”

Not a single institute for higher education was started by Mr.V.P.Singh though he was in office for nearly a year.

11.  Sri.  Chandrashekar - The 8th Prime Minister

Brief Introduction

Shri Chandra Shekhar was born on July 1, 1927, in a farmer’s family in village Ibrahimpatti in District Ballia, Uttar Pradesh. He was President of the Janata Party from 1977 to 1988.

Shri Chandra Shekhar was attracted to politics from his student days and was known as a fire-brand idealist with revolutionary fervour. After his Master’s Degree in Political Science from Allahabad University, he joined the Socialist Movement. He was elected Secretary of the District Praja Socialist Party, Ballia. Within a year, he was elected Joint Secretary of the U.P. State Praja Socialist Party. In 1955-56 he took over as General Secretary of the U.P., State Praja Socialist Party. In 1962, he was elected to the Rajya Sabha from Uttar Pradesh. He joined the Indian National Congress in January 1965. In 1967 he was elected General Secretary of the Congress Parliamentary Party. As a Member of Parliament he made a mark by taking keen interest in espousing the cause of the downtrodden and pleading for policies for rapid social change. In this context, when he attacked the disproportionate growth of monopoly houses with State patronage, he came in conflict with the centres of power.

He came to be known as ‘Young Turk’ leader for his conviction, courage and integrity in the fight against vested interested. 

Shri Chandra Sekhar has always stood against politics of personalities and has favoured politics of ideology and social change. This propelled him more towards Shri Jayaprakash Narayan and his idealist view of life during the turbulent days of 1973-75. He soon became a focal point of dissent within the Congress Party.

When Emergency was declared on June 25, 1975, he was arrested under Maintenance of Internal Security Act inspite of the fact that he was a member of the Central Election Committee and Working Committee of the Indian National Congress.Shri Chandra Sekhar was among the few individuals in the then ruling party who was imprisoned during the Emergency.

He has always rejected the politics of power and opted for the politics of commitment to democratic values and social change.

Shri Chandra Shekhar undertook a marathon walk (Padayatra) through the country from Kanyakumari in the deep South to Rajghat (Samadhi of Mahatma Gandhi) in New Delhi covering a distance of nearly 4260 kms from January 6, 1983 to June 25, 1983. The Padayatra was undertaken to renew rapport with the masses and to understand their pressing problems.

He has established about fifteen Bharat Yatra Centres in various parts of the country including Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana to train social and political workers for mass education and grassroot work in backward pockets of the country.

He has been a Member of Parliament since 1962 except for a brief period from 1984 to 1989..

Shri Chandra Sekhar is married to Smt. Duja Devi and had two sons, Pankaj and Neeraj.

Period of Occupation : 10th November 1990 to 21st June 1991

Total Months in Power : 223 Days

How he became PM & How he vacated it

Along with 64 members of Lok Sabha, Chandrashekar floated the Samajwadi Janata Party  and proved a majority in the Lok Sabha with support from Congress.

Shekhar's premiership was in office just for four months as Congress proceeded to withdraw its support. Shekhar's submitted resignation  on Mar., 06, 1991.

Major events during the period

After his predecessor, V.P. Singh, resigned, he led a breakaway faction of the Janata Dal, known as the Samajwadi Janata Party. The Indian National Congress decided to extend outside support to his government to avoid snap elections, and Shekhar held a bare majority in a coalition with both the Communist parties and the BJP. The relationship crumbled quickly, as the Congress party accused him of spying on Rajiv Gandhi, their leader at that time. The Congress Party then boycotted Parliament and as Shekhar's faction only had about 60 MPs, he resigned in a nationally televised address on March 6, 1991. He remained in office until national elections could be held later that year.His government could not pass the budget[7] at a crucial time when Moody had downgraded India and it further went down after the budget was not passed and global credit-rating agencies further downgraded India from investment grade making it impossible to even get short-term loans and in no position to give any commitment to reform, the World Bank and IMF stopped their assistance. Chandrasekhar had to authorise mortgaging of gold to avoid default of payment and this action came in for particular criticism as it was done secretly in the midst of the election.

My Comments

The records speak for themselves. He became a PM with the support of parties moving in three different directions and from day one, the question was as to when the govt will fall. After successfully ensuring the fall of Charan Singh Govt, the Congress played the trick once again and the PM tendered resignation. The govt could not even pass the budget. That should be enough to say on the govt.

Not a single institute for higher education was started by Mr,Chandrashekar

12.  Sri  P.V.Narasimha Rao - The 9th Prime Minister

Brief Introduction

Pamulaparthi Venkata Narasimha Rao (28 June 1921 – 23 December 2004) was an Indian lawyer and politician  He led an important administration, overseeing a major economic transformation and several home incidents affecting national security of India. Rao, who held the Industries portfolio, was personally responsible for the dismantling of the Licence Raj, as this came under the purview of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, reversing the socialist policies of Rajiv Gandhi's government. He is often referred to as the "Father of Indian Economic Reforms".

According to a former Foreign Minister of India Natwar Singh, " Nehru had a temper, PV a temperament. His roots were deep in the spiritual and religious soil of India. He did not need to 'Discover India'". 

Rao died in 2004 of a heart attack in New Delhi. He was cremated in Hyderabad. He was a versatile thinker with interests in a variety of subjects such as literature and computer software including computer programming. He spoke 17 languages.

Period of Occupation : 21st June 1991 to 16th May 1996

Total Months in Power : 4 Years 330 Days

How he became PM & How he vacated it

In the general election of 1991, Congress—under the leadership of P. V. Narasimha Rao—formed a minority government

Rao's tenure ended in May 1996 as Congress lost the General elections.

Major events during the period

Rao's major achievement generally considered to be the liberalization of the Indian economy. Thus, he began efforts to restructure India’s economy by converting the inefficient quasi-socialist structure left by Jawaharlal Nehru and the Gandhis into a free-market system. His program involved cutting government regulations and red tape, abandoning subsidies and fixed prices, and privatizing state-run industries.

The reforms were adopted to avert impending international default in 1991. The reforms progressed furthest in the areas of opening up to foreign investment, reforming capital markets, deregulating domestic business, and reforming the trade regime. Rao's government's goals were reducing the fiscal deficit, Privatization of the public sector, and increasing investment in infrastructure. Trade reforms and changes in the regulation of foreign direct investment were introduced to open India to foreign trade while stabilizing external loans.

With Rao's mandate, Dr. Manmohan Singh as his Finance Minister launched India's globalisation angle of the reforms that implemented the International Monetary Fund (IMF) policies to rescue the almost bankrupt nation from economic collapse. Rao was also referred to as Chanakya for his ability to steer economic and political legislation through the parliament at a time when he headed a minority government

Future prime ministers Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Manmohan Singh continued the economic reform policies pioneered by Rao's government. He employed Dr. Manmohan Singh as his Finance Minister to embark on historic economic transition.
Rao energized the national nuclear security and ballistic missiles program, which ultimately resulted in the 1998 Pokhran nuclear tests. It is speculated that the tests were actually planned in 1995, during Rao's term in office, and that they were dropped under American pressure when the US intelligence got the whiff of it. Another view was that he purposefully leaked the information to gain time to develop and test thermonuclear device which was not yet ready. He increased military spending, and set the Indian Army on course to fight the emerging threat of terrorism and insurgencies, as well as Pakistan and China's nuclear potentials. It was during his term that terrorism in the Indian state of Punjab was finally defeated. Also scenarios of plane hijackings, which occurred during Rao's time ended without the government conceding the terrorists' demands. He also directed negotiations to secure the release of Doraiswamy, an Indian Oil executive, from Kashmiri terrorists who kidnapped him, and Liviu Radu, a Romanian diplomat posted in New Delhi in October 1991, who was kidnapped by Sikh terrorists. Rao also handled the Indian response to the occupation of the Hazratbal holy shrine in Jammu and Kashmir by terrorists in October 1993. He brought the occupation to an end without damage to the shrine. Similarly, he dealt with the kidnapping of some foreign tourists by a terrorist group called Al Faran in Kashmir in 1995 effectively. Although he could not secure the release of the hostages, his policies ensured that the terrorists demands were not conceded to, and that the action of the terrorists was condemned internationally, including by Pakistan.

Rao also made diplomatic overtures to Western Europe, the United States, and China. He decided in 1992 to bring into the open India's relations with Israel, which had been kept covertly active since they were first established by Indira Gandhi in 1969, and permitted Israel to open an embassy in New Delhi. He ordered the intelligence community in 1992 to start a systematic drive to draw the international community's attention to alleged Pakistan's sponsorship of terrorism against India and not to be discouraged by US efforts to undermine the exercise. Rao launched the Look East foreign policy, which brought India closer to ASEAN. He decided to maintain a distance from the Dalai Lama in order to avoid aggravating Beijing's suspicions and concerns, and made successful overtures to Tehran. The 'cultivate Iran' policy was pushed through vigorously by him. These policies paid rich dividends for India in March 1994, when Benazir Bhutto's efforts to have a resolution passed by the UN Human Rights Commission in Geneva on the human rights situation in Jammu and Kashmir failed, with opposition by China and Iran. Rao's crisis management after the March 12, 1993 Bombay bombings was highly praised. He personally visited Bombay after the blasts and after seeing evidence of Pakistani involvement in the blasts, ordered the intelligence community to invite the intelligence agencies of the US, UK and other West European countries to send their counter-terrorism experts to Bombay to examine the facts for themselves. Major achievement of SriPVN Rao is introduction of unigauge in Railways 

11th President of India APJ Abdul Kalam described Rao as a "patriotic statesman who believed that the nation is bigger than the political system". Kalam acknowledged that Rao in fact asked him to get ready for nuclear tests in 1996 but they were not carried out as government at centre got changed due to 1996 general election. The tests were later conducted by Vajpayee-led NDA government. In fact Rao briefed Vajpayee on nuclear plans. 

Rao's term as Prime Minister was an eventful one in India's history. Besides marking a paradigm shift from the industrialising, mixed economic model of Jawaharlal Nehru to a market driven one, his years as Prime Minister also saw the emergence of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), a major right-wing party, as an alternative to the Indian National Congress which had been governing India for most of its post-independence history. Rao's term also saw the destruction of the Babri Mosque in Ayodhya in Uttar Pradesh when BJP's Kalyan Singh was Chief Minister, which triggered one of the worst Hindu-Muslim riots in the country since its independence Although heavily criticised during his tenure and even side lined later by his own party, retrospective evaluations have been kinder, even positioning him as one of the best prime ministers of India in various polls and analyses. His achievements include steering India through the 1991 economic crisis, completing a tenure with a minority government, establishing diplomatic relations with Israel, starting India's Look East policy, rekindling India's nuclear programme, defeating the 1994 United Nations resolution against India, effectively handling and crushing insurgency in Punjab, tough policy against terrorism in Kashmir, and opening partial diplomatic relations with Taiwan.

My Comments

He had everything a man can dream of but he also had which a man does not like to have. Very intelligent , experienced , cool headed person but leaders of his own party were secretly planning as to when he will fall. This is evident from the fact that upon his death, even his body was not taken to party office there by breaking the party protocol. However, his cool temperament and intelligence ensured India steering through the 1991 economic crisis which prompted the later governments of different political combinations to  continue the economic reform policies pioneered by Mr.Rao. Unigauge introduced by him has totally changed the working of the Railways in India as one can now travel across India in Railways without changing enroute.

Tough, Mr.Rao was in office for full term of five years, only one institute for higher education was started the same being an IIT.

13 & 16.  Sri. Atal Bihari Vajpayee - The 10th Prime Minister

Brief Introduction

He was among the founding members of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh (BJS), of which he was president from 1968 to 1972. The BJS merged with several other parties to form the Janata Party, which won the 1977 general election. Vajpayee was one of the co-founders and a senior leader of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). He was a member of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, a Hindu nationalist volunteer organisation. He was also noted as a poet and a writer.

He was a member of the Indian Parliament for over five decades, having been elected ten times to the Lok Sabha, the lower house, and twice to the Rajya Sabha, the upper house. He served as the Member of Parliament from Lucknow, retiring from active politics in 2009 due to health concerns.. In March 1977, Vajpayee became the Minister of External Affairs in the cabinet of Prime Minister Morarji Desai.

Period of Occupation : 16th May 1996 to 1st June 1996 , 19th March 11998 to 10th October 1999 & 10th October 1999 to 22nd May 2004

Total Months in Power : 6 Years 64 Days

How he became PM & How he vacated it

In the first of the three innings, Vajpayee became PM on the basis of heading the single largest party and was in office just for 16 days. 

Was again invited to form the government in 1998

In the subsequent October 1999 general election, the BJP-led NDA and its affiliated parties secured a comfortable majority in the Lok Sabha, winning 299 of 543 seats

First innings of Vajpayee party  came to an end on the 16th day as he could not  establish majority. 

During Second innings, in May 1999, All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam withdrew from the ruling National Democratic Alliance (NDA) coalition; Vajpayee's government, hence, became a caretaker one after losing a motion-of-no-confidence by just one vote 269–270.   

The third innings was fully spent for five years from 1999 to 2004 before losing the general election.

Major events during the period

The National Highways Development Project (NHDP) popularly known as Golden Quadrilaterl scheme is the brain child of Sri.ABVajpayee . 

Credit for nuclear test goes to Mr.Vajpayee though ground work to it was done by Sri.PVNRao

The Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY);  

Prime Minister Rural Road Scheme, for the development of roads.

However,  Gujarat communal riots  took place in 2002  resulting in about 2,000 deaths

On 31.5. 2003, Unit Trust of India was closed and it was wrapped up on 1st Jun.,2008.

My comments

Prior to inauguration of the Golden Quadrilaterl scheme, he had said that “In India pot holes are not there but  roads are there in  pot holes”. Present day national highways of the Country, though some with lessor number of lanes,  can be compared with any roads abroad. 

During Mr.Vajpayee’s tenure of 6 years in office, Country saw the launch of 6 AIIMS and one IIT.

14. Sri  H.D.Deve Gowda - The 11th Prime Minister

Brief Introduction

Haradanahalli Doddegowda Deve Gowda, born on May 18, 1933 at Haradanahalli, into a Vokkaligas family, Gowda was raised in that subcaste’s agricultural tradition. He earned a diploma in civil engineering in 1952 from a polytechnic school and then worked as a contractor. He was a member of the Indian National Congress from 1953 to 1962, when he abandoned the party and was elected to the Mysore state legislative assembly. He served as a member of the assembly for four consecutive terms, during which he became known as a champion for the disadvantaged.

Gowda was imprisoned during the  Emergency. In the 1980s he served as Karnataka’s minister of public works and irrigation, and in 1991 he was elected to the Lok Sabha . 

In 1994 Gowda assumed leadership over the Janata Dal party and became Karnataka’s chief minister. 

His son H.D.Kumaraswamy is a former Chief Minister of the State of Karnataka.

Even at this age, Mr.Gowda practices Yoga and his practice was telecast live on the Internation Yoga Day. As on date he is first of the two living former Prime Minsters of the Country, other one being Dr.Man Mohan Singh.

Period of Occupation : 1st June 1996 to 21st April 1997

Total Months in Power : 324 Days

How he became PM & How he vacated it

When the United Front (a conglomeration of non-Congress and non-BJP regional parties) decided to form the Government at the Centre with the support of the Congress, Deve Gowda was unexpectedly chosen to head the government and became the 11th Prime Minister of India.

In April 1997 the Congress (I) Party withdrew its support for the coalition. The reason given was that, although Gowda’s minority United Front government was dependent upon the Congress, the prime minister did not consult the party regarding important matters. On April 11, 1997, Gowda lost a no-confidence motion in the Lok Sabha by a wide margin

Major events during the period

He took over as Prime Minister of India on 1 June 1996 and continued until 21 April 1997. Also, he was the Chairman of the Steering Committee of the United Front, the policy making apex body of all the constituents of the ruling front. He is credited for providing financial closure and kickstarting development of the Delhi Metro Project

My comments

Sri.Deve Gowda became third PM to fall victim to the plan of Congress in withdrawing support after assuring support .in the beginning. Thus, Sri Gowda could not complete one year in office. Work on Delhi Metro commenced during his tenure.

Though Mr.Gowda was in office for less than an year, he has launched 2 IIMs.

15.    Sri  Indra Kumar Gujral - The 12th Prime Minister

Brief Introduction

Inder Kumar Gujral, (born December 4, 1919, JhelumIndia [now in Pakistan]—died November 30, 2012, Gurgaon, India), Indian politician who served briefly as prime minister of India from April 21, 1997, to March 19, 1998, and who is remembered for the Gujral Doctrine, a policy grounded on India’s unilaterally reaching out diplomatically to its neighbours without the expectation of reciprocity.

Gujral was born into a well-connected family that played a prominent role in the struggle for independence from British rule. He attended DAV College (now Government Islamia College, Civil Lines), the Hailey College of Commerce, and Forman Christian College, all in Lahore. There, during his student days, he was initiated into politics and served as president of the Lahore Students’ Union as well as the general secretary of the Punjab Students’ Federation.

In 1964, as a member of the Congress Party, he entered the Rajya Sabha, where he continued to serve until 1976. During this period he held a number of cabinet-level ministerial positions in the Congress (I) government headed by Indira Gandhi. In 1975 when Gandhi declared a state of emergency, Gujral, who was then the minister of information and broadcasting, rejected the government’s demand to censor news bulletins and editorials. As a result, he had to resign from his post and was made ambassador to the Soviet Union (1976–80).In 1989 Gujral was elected to the Lok Sabha  and became the minister of external affairs (1989–90) in the government of Prime Minister V.P. Singh. In 1992, Gujral again entered the Rajya Sabha. When the Janata Dal-led United Front government came to power in 1996, he was again appointed the minister of external affairs (1996–97).

Period of Occupation : 21st April 1997 to 19th March 1998

Total Months in Power : 332 Days

How he became PM & How he vacated it

Gujral was sworn in as prime minister on April 21 with INC extending outside support.

However, in November the INC withdrew its support, and Gujral resigned (remaining in a caretaker capacity until a new government could be formed in March 1998).

Major events during the period

Gujral is remembered for the Gujral Doctrine, a policy grounded on India’s unilaterally reaching out diplomatically to its neighbours without the expectation of reciprocity. Gujral doctrine which set the stage for countless negotiations in subsequent years.

My Comments

Gujral doctrine appears to be an extension of famous saying of Mahatma Gandhi that if one were to slap you then give him the other side too to slap because here too without expecting any thing in return he wanted peace with neighbours.

Though Mr.Gujral was in office close to one year, not a single institute for higher education was launched by him.

During a period of 21 years commencing from 24.03.1977 and ending 19.03.1998,  we had seven non-Congress government out of which five relied on out side support of the said party to be in power. However, as the Congress withdrew its support to them, none of these five could complete even one year in office and amongst the rest two, only Mr.Vajpayee could complete full term in office though his first innings lasted just 16 days.

17.  Dr. Man Mohan Singh - The 13th Prime Minister

Brief Introduction

Manmohan Singh (Punjabi:  born 26 September 1932) is an Indian economist, academic, and politician who served as the 13th prime minister of India from 2004 to 2014. The first Sikh in office, Singh was also the first prime minister since Jawaharlal Nehru to be re-elected after completing a full five-year term.

Born in GahWest Punjab, in what is today Pakistan, Singh's family migrated to India during its partition in 1947. After obtaining his doctorate in economics from Oxford, Singh worked for the United Nations during 1966–1969. He subsequently began his bureaucratic career when Lalit Narayan Mishra hired him as an advisor in the Ministry of Commerce and Industry. During the 1970s and 1980s, Singh held several key posts in the Government of India, such as Chief Economic Advisor (1972–1976), governor of the Reserve Bank (1982–1985) and head of the Planning Commission (1985–1987).

In 1991, as India faced a severe economic crisis, newly elected Prime Minister P. V. Narasimha Rao surprisingly inducted the apolitical Singh into his cabinet as Finance Minister. Over the next few years, despite strong opposition, he as a Finance Minister carried out several structural reforms that liberalised India's economy. Although these measures proved successful in averting the crisis, and enhanced Singh's reputation globally as a leading reform-minded economist, the incumbent Congress party fared poorly in the 1996 general election. Subsequently, Singh served as Leader of the Opposition in the Rajya Sabha (the upper house of the Parliament of India) during the Atal Bihari Vajpayee government of 1998–2004.

As on date he is seond of the two living former Prime Ministers of the Country, other one being Sri.H.D.Deve Gowda.

Period of Occupation : 22nd May 2004 to 26th May 2014

Total Months in Power : 10 Years 4 Days

How he became PM & How he vacated it

In the 2004 election, the Congress emerged as the largest party in a hung parliament and Congress’s leader, Sonia Gandhi declined the prime ministership, instead recommending Singh for the post. Singh subsequently formed a government and took office.  Congress-led United Progressive Alliance (UPA)—with outside support from the Left Front, the Samajwadi Party (SP) and Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) among others—proved a majority in the Lok Sabha. UPA won the next general election in 2009.

After being in office from 2004 to 2014, Congress lost the elections in 2014.

Major events during the period

His stated goals included helping improve conditions for India’s poor (who generally had not benefited from the country’s economic growth), securing peace with neighbouring Pakistan, and improving relations between India’s various religious groups.

During his tenure, the country retained the economic momentum gained during Prime Minister Vajpayee's tenure. Apart from this, the government succeeded in getting the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005, and the Right to Information Act, 2005 passed in the parliament. Further, the government strengthened India's relations with nations like Afghanistan; Russia; the Gulf states; and the United States, culminating with the ratification of India–United States Civil Nuclear Agreement near the end of Singh's first term. 

At the same time, the November 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks also happened.

Prime Minister Singh's second term, however, was surrounded by accusations of high-level scandals and corruption

Singh presided over a rapidly expanding economy, but rising fuel costs precipitated a marked increase in inflation that threatened the government’s ability to provide subsidies for the country’s poor. In an effort to meet India’s growing energy demands, Singh in 2005 entered into negotiations with U.S. President George W. Bush for a nuclear cooperation pact. The deal called for India to receive fuel technology for nuclear plants and be given the ability to purchase nuclear fuel on the world market. Abroad, the prospective cooperation agreement was resisted by those who were upset over India’s refusal to sign the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons; in India, Singh was criticized for fostering too close a relationship with the United States, which, his critics believed, would use the deal to leverage power in the Indian government. By 2008 progress on the deal prompted members of the government’s Parliamentary majority—communist parties in particular—to denounce Singh’s government and ultimately push for a confidence vote in Parliament in late July 2008.

My comments

Our Country was fortunate in getting Dr. Singh as its PM. He was Less spoken but highly qualified economist. It was an open secret that the PM had no free hand in taking several decisions as the orders were coming from the High Command of the party. In spite of this draw back, Dr.Singh carried the country very well in the first term but the Govt got involved in several scandals in the second term. Strained relationship with US became a thing of the past and in fact Dr.Singh was accused of being too close to US.

One of the major enactment was the passing of Right to Information Act, 2005 through which a citizen’s right to get information on any issue became a statutory right.

Because of his cool temperament, Dr.Singh was able to carry different groups within the Alliance in running the successful government for two terms.

During his period of ten years in Office, Dr.Singh launched 1 AIIMS, 8 IITs and 7 IIMs .

18.  Sri  Narendra Modi - The 14th Prime Minister

Brief Introduction

Narendra Damodardas Modi  :Born on 17th Sep., 1950 and raised in Vadnagar, a small town in northeastern Gujarat, Modi completed his secondary education there, and is said to have helped his father sell tea at the local railway station. He was introduced to the RSS at age eight. Modi left home after finishing high-school in part due to child marriage to Jashodaben Chimanlal Modi. Modi travelled around India for two years and visited  number of religious centres before returning to Gujarat. In 1971 he became a full-time worker for the RSS. During the state of emergency imposed across the country in 1975, Modi was forced to go into hiding. The RSS assigned him to the BJP in 1985 and he held several positions within the party hierarchy until 2001, rising to the rank of general secretary. 

Modi was appointed as Chief Minister of Gujarat in 2001 and was thereafter elected to the legislative assembly. His administration has been considered complicit in the 2002 Gujarat riots, or otherwise criticised for its handling of it. A Supreme Court-appointed Special Investigation Team found no evidence to initiate prosecution proceedings against Modi personally. His policies as chief minister, credited with encouraging economic growth, have received praise.  

Modi led the BJP in the 2014 general election which gave the party a majority in the Parliament.

Period of Occupation : 26th May 2014 to current

Total Months in Power : 6 Years & Counting

How he became PM and how he vacated it

In the general election of 2014, the BJP-led NDA got an absolute majority, winning 336 out of 543 Lok Sabha seats; the BJP itself became the first party since 1984 to get a majority in the Lok Sabha. Narendra Modi—the Chief Minister of Gujarat—was elected prime minister, becoming the first prime minister to have been born in an independent India.

Narendra Modi was re-elected as prime minister in 2019 with a bigger mandate than that of 2014. The BJP-led NDA winning 354 seats out of which BJP itself secured 303 seats.

Major events during the period

(1)Demonetization made on 8th Nov.,2016

(2) Since March, 2020 whole world including India are in the midst of Corona virus crisis. PM Modi  got lot of appreciation from world leaders for handling the First wave of Covid 19 and is getting full brick bats from Judiciary, Media and of course Opposition Leaders for, what they call, inefficient handling of Second wave of Corona Virus.

(3). In the midst of Covid Crisis, Govt has started implementing Vista Project costing around Rs.20,000 crores. The project includes New Parliament building, new residence for Vice President and Prime Minister in addition to having all government offices in new buildings coming under the Project. Construction project of new Parliament has been awarded to Tatas for Rs.960 Crores and is expected to be ready by December 2022.  

Schemes Implemented Under Modi Regime

01    PMJDY KVP    Kisan Vikas Patra    2014    Ministry of Finance    

02    NG    Namami Gange    June, 2014    Ministry of Water Resources    

03    PMJDY    Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana    August 28, 2014    Ministry of Finance    

Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana is a National Mission on Financial Inclusion that provides an integrated approach to bring about a robust financial inclusion and ultimately provide banking services to all households in the country.

04    MI    Make in India    September 25, 2014    Ministry of Commerce and Industry    PM Narendra Modi launched the ‘Make in India’ campaign that will facilitate investment, foster innovation, enhanced protection for intellectual property and build best in manufacturing infrastructure. ‘Make in India’ has identified 25 sectors in manufacturing, infrastructureand service activities and detailed information is being shared through interactive web-portal and professionally developed brochures.

05    SBA    Swachh Bharat Abhiyan    October 2nd, 2014    Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs    Swachh Bharat Mission was launched in the entire country as a national movement. The campaign aims to achieve the vision of a ‘Clean India’ by 2nd October 2019. The Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is the most significant campaign with regards to sanitation by the Government of India.

06    PDUSJY    Pandit Deendayal Upadhyay Shramev Jayate Yojana    October 16, 2014    Ministry of Labour and Employment    

07    NBS    National Bal Swachhta    November 14, 2014    Ministry of Women and Child Development    

08    RGM    Rashtriya Gokul Mission     December 16, 2014    Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare    

09    PMKVY      Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana    2015    Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurs     

10    PMSSY    Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojana    January 22, 2015    Ministry of Health & Family Welfare    

11    PMMY    Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana    April 8, 2015    Ministry of Finance    

12    PMJJBY    Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana    May 9 2015    Ministry of Finance    

13    PMSBY    Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana    May 9, 2015    Ministry of Finance    

14    APY    Atal Pension Yojana    May 9, 2015    Ministry of Finance    Atal Pension Yojana is a pension scheme mainly aimed at providing a universal pension scheme for those who are a part of the unorganized sector such as maids, gardeners, delivery boys, etc. This scheme replaced the previous Swavalamban Yojana which wasn’t well-received by the people

15    PMGKY    Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana     July 1, 2015    Ministry of Agriculture    

16    DI    Digital India     July 1, 2015    Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology    The Digital India programme is a flagship programme of the Government of India with a vision to transform India into a digitally empowered society and knowledge economy

17    SI    Skill India    July 15, 2015    Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurs    

18    DDUGJY    Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana     July 25, 2015    Ministry of Power    

19    (PMBJP) (PMJAY)    Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana’    September 2015    Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers    

20    GMS    Gold Monetisation Scheme     November 4 2015    Ministry of Finance    Gold Monetisation Scheme was launched by Government of India in 2015, under this scheme one can deposit their gold in any form in a GMS account to earn interest as the price of the gold metal goes up.

21    Startup India    Startup India, Standup India    January 16, 2016    Government of India    

22    BBBPY    Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao Yojana    January 22, 2015    Ministry of Women and Child Development    The goal of this scheme is to make girls socially and financially self-reliant through education.

23    NSTSS    National Sports Talent Search Scheme    February 20, 2015    Ministry of Youth Affairs & Sports    

24    PMFBY    Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana     February 18, 2016    Ministry of Agriculture    

25    PMGKY    Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana    December 16, 2016    Ministry of Finance    

26    Pradhan Mantri Vaya Vandana Yojana    May 4, 2017    

27    PM AASHA    Pradhan Mantri Annadata Aay SanraksHan Abhiyan     September 2018        

28    SATAT    SATAT Scheme     October 2018        Sustainable Alternative Towards Affordable Transportation

29    PM-KUSUM    Pradhan Mantri Kisan Urja Suraksha evam Utthaan Mahabhiyan    February 19, 2019    Ministry of New and Renewable Energy    

30    DHRUV – PM Innovative Learning Programme    October 10, 2019        

31    NIRVIK Scheme (Niryat Rin Vikas Yojana)    February 1, 2020        

32    National Technical Textiles Mission (NTTM)    February 26, 2020        

33    SWAMITVA    Survey of Villages and Mapping with Improvised Technology in Village Areas    April 24, 2020    Ministry of Panchayati Raj    

34    SVAMITVA    SVAMITVA Scheme April 24, 2020 Survey of Villages and Mapping with Improvised Technology in Village Areas

35    Mission Sagar    May, 2020        

36    PM SVANidhi    Prime Minister Street Vendor’s Atmanirbhar Nidhi    June 1, 2020    Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs    

37    Sahakar Mitra Scheme    June 12, 2020        

38    PM FME    Pradhan Mantri Formalization of Micro Food Processing Enterprises Scheme    June 29, 2020    Ministry of Food Processing Industries    

39    NDHM    National Digital Health Mission    August 15, 2020    Ministry of Health and Family WelfareLaunched on August 15, 2020, the mission aims to create an integrated healthcare system linking practitioners with the patients digitally by giving them access to real-time health records.

40    Mission Karmayogi    September 2, 2020        

41    PMMSY    Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana    September 10, 2020    Department of Fisheries    

42    Ayushman Sahakar Scheme    October 19, 2020        

43    SERB-    POWER Scheme     October 29, 2020        Promoting Opportunities for Women in Exploratory Research

44    Mission COVID Suraksha    November 29, 2020        

45    SISFS    Startup India Seed Fund Scheme     April 1, 2021 

Some more schemes are mentioned in the web of PMO and they are arranged here in an alphabetical order

01    Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan The scheme (meaning self-reliant India scheme) is a name given to the full-fledged economic stimulus package announced by the Union Government. It has been launched with an aim to make people self-dependent and overcome the difficulties caused by the coronavirus pandemic. 

02    AMRUT Plan    

03    Atal Bhujal Yojana (ABY)    

04    Aarogya Setu    The Government of India took the initiative to fight the Coronavirus pandemic. It launched a mobile application to spread the awareness of COVID_19 among the citizens of India through an app called Aarogya Setu. The Aarogya Setu mobile app has been developed by the National Informatics Centre (NIC) that comes under the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology. For detailed information, visit the link of Aarogya Setu given above.

05    Ayushman Bharat    Launched in 2018 by Prime Minister Narendra Modi Ayushman Bharat is a health scheme. It is the largest government-funded healthcare programme in the world with over 50 crore beneficiaries. The Ayushman Bharath programme has two sub-missions PM-JAY & HWCs.  

Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PM-JAY), earlier known as the National Health Protection Scheme (NHPS) will cover the financial protection for availing healthcare services at the secondary and tertiary levels. 

Health and Wellness Centres (HWCs) aimed at improving access to cheap and quality healthcare services at the primary level. Read about Ayushman Bharat in detail in the link provided above.

06    Deep Ocean Mission    

07    Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana (DDU-GKY)    

08    Fame India Scheme    

09    Housing for All Scheme 

10    HRIDAY Scheme    

11    Integrated Processing Development Scheme    

12    Jan Dhan Yojana    

13    KUSUM Scheme    

14    Kapila Kalam Program    

15    Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH) 

16    Nai Roshni Scheme    

17    National Beekeeping & Honey Mission (NBHM) 

18    National Water Mission    

19    National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG)    

20    National Nutrition Mission    

21    New Jal Shakti Ministry    

22    Operation Greens Scheme    

23    PM-KISAN (Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi) Scheme  

24    Pradhan Mantri Kisan Maan Dhan Yojana    

25    PM Garib Kalyan Yojana (PMGKY)    

26    Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Maan-Dhan    It is a voluntary and contributory pension scheme, under which the subscriber would receive the following benefits: 

(i) Minimum Assured Pension: Each subscriber under the PM-SYM, shall receive minimum assured pension pension of Rs 3000/- per month  after attaining the age of 60 years. 

(ii) Family Pension: During the receipt of a pension, if the subscriber dies, the spouse of the beneficiary shall be entitled to receive 50% of the pension received by the beneficiary as a family pension. Family pension is applicable only to a spouse. 

(iii) If a beneficiary has given a regular contribution and died due to any cause (before age of 60 years), his/her spouse will be entitled to join and continue the scheme subsequently by payment of regular contribution or exit the scheme as per provisions of exit and withdrawal.

27    Prime Minister’s Citizen Assistance and Relief in Emergency Situation (PM CARES) Is a public charitable trust initiated by the 

Prime Minister Narendra Modi. This national trust is created with the objective to meet the distressed and dreadful situation like 

COVID-19 in times ahead. PM CARES was initiated on March 28, 2020, under the chairmanship of the Indian Prime Minister with Ministry of Home Affairs, Defence Minister and Finance Minister as the ex-officio Trustee.

28    PRASAD Scheme – Pilgrimage Rejuvenation And Spirituality Augmentation Drive The Scheme is launched under the Ministry of tourism in the year 2015. The aims of PRASAD Scheme is the integrated development of pilgrimage destinations in a prioritised, planned, and sustainable manner for providing complete religious tourism experience. The focus of Pilgrimage Rejuvenation And Spirituality Augmentation Drive- PRASAD is on the development and beautification of the identified pilgrimage destinations. Further details on PRASAD scheme is given in the related page link given above in the article.

29    Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) 

30    PM FME – Formalization of Micro Food Processing Enterprises Scheme    

31    Production Linked Incentive (PLI) Scheme    

32    Prime Minister Ujjwala Plan 

33    Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana    

34    Remission of Duties and Taxes on Exported Products (RoDTEP) Scheme    

35    Savya Shiksha Abhiyaan    

36    Solar Charkha Mission    

37    Samarth Scheme    

38    Sahakar Pragya Initiative    

39    Sovereign Gold Bond Scheme    

40    Swadesh Darshan Scheme 

41    Saansad Adarsh Gram Yojana (SAGY)    

42    Shramev Jayate Yojana 

43    Smart Cities Mission    

44    Setu Bhartam Yojana    

45    Ujala Yojna 

46    UDAY    

47    UMANG – Unified Mobile Application for New-age Governance    It is a mobile application launched by PM Narendra Modi to provide secured access to the citizens to multiple government services at one platform. UMANG is a key component of the Digital India initiative of the government that intends to make all traditional offline government services available 24 x 7 online through a single unified app.

49    Unique Land Parcel Identification Number (ULPIN) Scheme    

50    UDID Project

My Comments

I must admit that I am really not sure as to whether all the aforesaid schemes are in operation. If the answer is yes, then nothing more can be said on the governance of Sri.Modi because it is well said “records speak for themselves”.

I have come across few of the schemes and will refer to its advantage. Under Swatch Bharath Scheme, even village people are opting to have their own toilets instead have going for open ground.

Any amount payable by the Government gets credited directly to the bank account of the beneficiary instead of the beneficiary going to the concerned offices.

Under the scheme of houses for all, subsidy is given for every person to have a roof of his own.

Under Ujala yojna, women folk are benefited through gas connections .

Under Ayushman Bharath, several health schemes are introduced . Persons belonging to middle income group are still the neglected lot.

There are several other welfare schemes such as Digital India, Make in India etc. The purpose of several schemes as available in the web site of PMO is extracted above and it is for the readers to ponder as to whether those schemes are of any benefit or not.

As noticed earlier, several institutions of higher education such as AIIMS, IITs, IIMs have come into existence in different parts of the country.

Transportation over rivers is encouraged.

Distance between several cities are reduced through short distance road construction.

Abolition of Art.370 is major step. Steps take in J & K has substantially reduced terrorist activities. 

In a span of 6 years, Modi has ensured the launch of 16 AIIMS, 7 IITs  and 6 IIMs as against 

8 AIIMS, 15 IITs  and 13 IIMs launched in the earlier  64 years by the 13 Prime Ministers.

Finally i would like to end this post by saluting each Prime Minister for their hard-work and commitment shown to the prestigious office and post the held.

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